CRIMINAL LIABILITY AND COMPULSORY IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE

THE CASE OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS

Resumo

The present study aims to explore the relationship of criminal liability and compulsory in international criminal justice according the founding of international individual criminal responsibility in relation on the Transnational Corporations. There are few cases in which an International Criminal Court has used previous international jurisprudence to establish a crime of conduct in international customary law, and in any case the importance of international judgments can not be underestimated as a general interpretative tool. The offer of incriminating solution that serves as an extrema ratio for the criminal penalties that are imputable to multinational companies and which completes the sanctioning apparatus of international law is one of the solution offered and the result of a reconstruction that started mainly from the examples of national laws, but it should not be overlooked, that the penal responsibility of the multinational companies was expressly foreseen and regulated in the draft of the Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Biografia do Autor

Dimitris Liakopoulos, Tufts University, Medford, MA, Estados Unidos.

Full professor of European Union Law in Fletcher School-Tufts University. Full professor in international criminal law and criminal procedural law in De Haagse Hogenschool-Aja. Attorney at law in New York.

Referências

AMAO, O., Civil and Political Rights in the African Charter, and M. SSENYONJO, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the African Charter, in M. SSENYONJO (ed.), The African Regional Human Rights System: 30 years after the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, Boston, 2012.

AMBOS, K., Treatise on international criminal law. Volume I: Foundations and general part, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013, pp. 97ss.

AZZOLINI BIANCAZ, A., La construcciòn de la responsabilidad construcciòn de la responsabilidad penal individual en el àmbito internacional, Alegatos Revista, 20, 2018.

BADAR ELEWA, M., The concept of mens rea in international criminal law. The case for a unified approach, Hart Publishing, Oxford & Oregon, Portland, 2013.

BADAR, M.W., The mental element in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A commentary from a comparative criminal law perspective, in Criminal Law Forum, 19 (4), 2008, pp. 477ss.

BAXTER, W.F., Separation of powers, prosecutorial discretion, and the “common law” nature of antitrust law, in Texas Law Review, 60, 1982, pp. 661, 663.

BEDERMAN, D.J., International law advocacy and its discontents, 2 in Chicago Journal of International Law, 2, 2001, pp. 476ss.

BEIGBEDER, T., International criminal tribunals: Justice and politics, ed. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2011, pp. 63ss.

BELLIA, A.J., CLARK, B.R., The Alien Tort statute and the law of Nations, in The University of Chicago Law Review, 70 (2), 2011, pp. 8ss.

BELLINGER, J., Enforcing human rights in U.S. Courts and abroad: The Alien Tort Statute and beyond, in Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42, 2009, pp. 12ss.

BERNAN, N., Corporte criminal liability under international law: The new TV S.A.L. Anmd Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. cases at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 13, 2015, pp. 314ss.

BISMUTH, R., Mapping a responsibility of corporations for violations of international humanitarian law sailing between international and domestic legal orders, in Denver Journal of International Law & Policy, 38, 2010, pp. 210ss.

BOCHOSLAVSKY, J.P., OPGENHAFFEN, V., The past and present of corporate complicity: financing the argentinean dictatorship, in Harvard Human Rights Journal, 23, 2010, pp. 160ss.

BOON, K.E., Are control tests fit for the future? The slippage problem in attribution doctrines, in Melbourne Journal of International Law, 15, 2014, pp. 6ss.

BOON, K.E., New directions in responsibility: Assessing the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the responsibility of International Organizations, in Yale Journal of International Law, 37, 2011.

BRADLEY, C.A., GOLDSMITH, J.L., MOORE, D.H., Sosa, customary international law, and the continuing relevance of erie, in Harvard Law Review, 120, 2007, pp. 870ss.

BRADLEY, C.A., The Alien Tort Statute and Article III, 42 Vanderbilt Journal of International Law, 42, 2002, pp. 587, 630-631.

BRANDABERE, E., Non-State actors and human rights corporate responsibility and the attemps to formalize the role of corporations as participants in the international legal system, in J. D’ASPREMONT (ed.), Participants in the international legal system multiple perspectives on non-State actors in international law, ed. Routledge, London & New York, 2011, pp. 270ss.

CALLIESS, F.P., Introduction: Transnational corporations revisited, in Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 18 (2), 2011, pp. 604-605.

CASSEL, D., Corporate aiding and abetting of human rights violations: Confusion in the courts, in Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 6, 2008, pp. 305ss.

CATÁ BACKER, L., Multinational corporations, transnational law: The United Nation’s norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations as harbinger of corporate responsibility in international law, in Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 37, 2006, pp. 287ss.

CCOURTNEY, J. KAOUTZANIS, C., Proactive gatekeepers: The jurisprudence of the ICC's pre-trial Chambers, in Chicago Journal of International Law, 16, 2015, pp. 525ss.

CHERIF BASSIOUNI M., (ed.), International Criminal Law-Vol. III: Enforcement, 2 nd Edition, Transnational Publishers, Ardsley, New York, 1999, pp. 443ss.

CHIMËNE, K., Conceptualizing complicity in Alien Tort Cases, in Hastings Law Journal 60, 2008, pp. 62ss.

CLAPHAM, A., The question of jurisdiction over multinational corporations under international criminal law, in M. T. KAMMINGA, S. ZIA-ZARIFI, Liability of multinational corporations under international law, Kluwer Law International The Hague, 2000, pp. 145 ss.

CLARK, R.S., The mental element in international criminal law: The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and the elements of offences, in Criminal Law Forum, 5, 2001, pp. 296ss.

CLOUGH, J., Bridging the theoretical gap: The search for a realist model of corporate criminal liability, in Criminal Law Forum, 18, 2007, pp. 268ss.

COLLINS, M.G., The diversity theory of the Alien Tort Statute, Vanderbilt Journal of International Law, 42, 2002, pp. 649, 652.

CRYER, R., FRIMAN, H., ROBINSON, D., WILMSHURST, E., An introduction to international criminal law and procedure, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010.

DE FELICE, D., Challenges and opportunities in the production of business and human rights indicators to measure the corporate responsibility to respect, in Human Rights Quarterly, 37, 2015.

DEYA, D., Worth the wait: Pushing for the African Court to exercise jurisdiction for international crimes, in OpenSpace on International Criminal Justice, 2012, pp. 224ss.

DODGE, W.S., Alien Tort litigation and the prescriptive jurisdiction fallacy, in Harvard International Law Journal, 51, 2010, pp. 35ss.

DODGE, W.S., Understanding the presumption against extraterritoriality, 16 in Berkeley Journal of International Law, 16, 1998, pp. 85, 99ss.

DONOVAN, D.F., ROBERTS, A., The emerging recognition of universal civil jurisdiction, 100 in American Journal of International Law, 100, 2006, pp. 142, 146-149, 153-154.

DOUGLAS-SCOTT, S. HATZIS, M., Research handbook on European Union law and human rights, E. Elgar Publishing, London & New York, 2017.

DROBAK, J.N., The Alien Tort Statute from the perspective of Federal Court procedure, in Washington University Global Studies Law Review, 13, 2014, pp. 422ss.

DROUBI, S., Transantional corporations and international humna rights law, in Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law, 6 (1), 2016, pp. 2ss.

EBERECHI, I., Rounding up the usual suspects: Exclusion, selectivity and impunity in the enforcement of international criminal justice and the African Union's emerging resistance, in African Journal of Legal Studies, 4, 2011, pp. 52ss.

ELEWA BADAR, M., KARSTEN, N., Current developments at the International Criminal Tribunals, in International Criminal Law Review, 8, 2008, par. 238.

ENGELHART, M., Corporate criminal liability from a comparative perspective, in D. BRODOWSKI, Regulating corporate criminal liability, ed. Springer, Berlin, 2014, pp. 54ss.

ESER, A., Mental elements-Mistake of fact and mistake of law, in A. CASSESE, P. GAETA, G.R.W.D JONES (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002, pp. 890ss.

ESTUPIŇAN SILVA, R., Principios que rigen la responsabilidad internacional penal por crìmenes internacionales, in Anuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional, 2012, pp. 136ss.

FAUCHALD, O.K., STIGEN, J., Corporate responsibility before International institutions, in George Washington International Law Review, 40, 2008, pp. 1025, 1029ss.

FINDLAY, M., CHAH HUI YUNG, J., Principled international criminal justice: Lessons form tort law, ed. Routledge, London & New York, 2018.

FINDLAY, M., HENHAM, R., Exploring the boundaries of international criminal justice, ed. Routledge, London & New York, 2016, pp. 83ss.

FLECK, D., The law of non-international armed conflict, in D. FLECK (a cura di), The Handbook of International humanitarian law, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013, pp. 581-610.

GIL GIL, A. Mens rea in co-perpetration and indirect perpetration according to article 30 of the Rome Statute. Arguments against punishment for excesses committed by the agent or the co-perpetrator, in International Criminal Law Review, 14, 2014, pp. 87ss.

GOODMAN, R., JINKS, D.P., Filartiga‘s firm footing: International human rights and federal common law, in Fordham Law Review, 66, 1997, pp. 463ss.

GOY, B., Individual criminal responsibility before the International Criminal Court: A comparison with the ad hoc Tribunals, in International Criminal Law Review, 12, 2012, pp. 5ss.

GOY, B., Individual criminal responsibility before the International Criminal Court: A Comparison with the ad hoc Tribunals, in International Criminal Law Review, 2012, pp. 34ss.

GRÉCIANO, P., Justice pènale internationale, ed. Mare & Martin, Paris, 2016.

GRESCHKOW, A., Feindbilder der Nachkriegsgeneration in Bosnien und Herzegowina: Bosniens Jugend zwischen Hoftung und den Schatten der Vergangenheit, Diplomica Verlag GmbH, Hamburg, 2014.

GROVER, L., Interpreting crimes in the Rome statute of the International Criminal Court, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016.

HASNAS, J., The centenary of a mistake: One hundred years of corporate criminal liability, in American Criminal Law Review, 46, 2009, pp. 1330ss.

HELLER, K.J., The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, in K.J. HELLER, D. DUBBER (eds.), The handbook of comparative criminal law, Stanford Law Books, Stanford, 2011, pp. 597ss.

HERWIG, J., MAUS, S., MEYER ZU SCHWABEDISSEN, A., SCHULER, M., Global risks: Constructing world order through law, politics and economics, ed, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 2010, pp. 120ss.

HILLEMANNS, C.F., UN norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights, in German Law Journal, 4, 2003, pp. 1065, 1071ss.

HOFFMAN, P.L., STEPHENS, B., International human rights cases under State law and is State Courts, in UC Irvine Law Review, 3, 2013, pp. 10ss.

HOLÁ, B., SMEULERS, A., BIJLEVELD, C., International sentencing facts and figures: Sentencing practice at the ICTY and ICTR, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 11, 2011, pp. 415ss.

JÄGERS, N., Corporate human rights obligations: in search of accountability, ed. Intersentia, Anversa, Oxford, New York, 2002, pp. 230ss.

JAIN, N., Perpetrators and accessories in internatonal criminal law. Individual modes of responsibility for collective crimes, Hart Publishing, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, 2014.

JAY, S., The status of the law of Nations in early american law, in Vanderbilt Law Review, 42, 1989, pp. 42ss.

JENNINGS, R.Y International law, in Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2, 1995, pp. 1159-1178.

JINKS, D., KATYAL, N.K., Disregarding foreign relations law, in Yale Law Journal, 116, 2007, pp. 1232ss.

JOSEPH, S., CASTAN, M., The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Cases, Materials, and Commentary, Oxford University Press, 2013.

KAEB, C. SCHEFFER, D., The paradox of Kiobel in Europe, in American Journal of International Law, 107, 2013, pp. 852, 854-855.

KAEB, C., The shifting sand of corporate liability under international criminal law, in The Georgetown Washington International Law Review, 49, 2016, pp. 354ss.

KALECK, W. SAAGE-MAAB, M., Corporate accountability for human rights violations amounting to international crimes-The status quo and its challenges, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 8, 2010.

KARL, J., The OECD Guidelines for multinational enterprises, in M.K. ADDO (ed), Human rights standards and the responsibility of transnational corporations, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, 1999, pp. 98-106.

KEITH, K.M.F., The mens rea of superior responsibility as developed by ICTY Jurisprudence, in Leiden Journal of International Law, 14, 2001, pp. 618ss.

KELDER, J., HOLÁ, B., VAN WIJK, J., Rehabilitation and early release of perpetrators of international crimes: A case study of the ICTY and ICTR, in International Criminal Law Review, 14, 2014, pp. 1180ss.

KELLY, M.J., Grafting the command responsibility doctrine onto corporate criminal liability for atrocities, in Emory International Law Review, 24, 2010, pp. 672ss.

KELLY, M.J., The status of corporations in the travaux preparatoires of the Genocide convention: The search for personhood, in Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 43, 2010, pp. 483-490.

KENDALL, S., Commodifying global justice: Economies of accountability at the International Criminal Court, (2015) 13 in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 13, 2015, pp. 114ss.

KHAN, L.A., DIXON, B.L., PULFORD, L., International criminal Courts, ed. Sweet & Maxwell, 2014.

KINLEY, D., CHAMBERS, R., The UN human rights norms for corporations: The private implications of public international law, in Human Rights Law Review, 6 (3), 2006, pp. 447ss.

KIYANI, A.G., Third world approaches to international criminal law, in American Journal of Inyernational Law, 109, 2016, pp. 256ss.

KNOX, J., A presumption against extrajurisdictionality, in American Journal of International Law, 104, 2010, pp. 35, 379-388.

KOH, H.H., Is international law really State law?, in Harvard Law Review, 111, 1998, pp. 1825ss.

KOHEN, M.G., La promotion de la justice des droits de l'homme et du règlement des conflits par le droit international. Liber amicorum Lucius Caflisch, Martinus Nijoff Publishers, The Hague, 2007.

KOHL, U., Corporate human rights accountability: The objections of western governments to the Alien Tort Statute, in International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 63, 2013, pp. 668ss.

KOLB, R., La Cour internationale de justice, ed. Pedone, 2014.

KOLB, R., Peremptory international law, Jus cogens. A general inventory, Hart Publishing, Oxford & Oregon, Portland, 2017.

KOLB, R., SCALIA, D., Droit international pènal, Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basel, 2012.

KOLB, R., The International Court of Justice, Hart Publishing, Oxford & Oregon, Portland, 2013, pp. 1280ss.

KONTOROVICH, E, Kiobel surprise: Unexpected by scholars but consistent with international trends, in Notre Dame Law Review, 89, 2014, pp. 21ss.

KONTOROVICH, E., Implementing Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain: What piracy reveals about the limits of the Alien Tort Statute, in 80 Notre Dame Law Review, 80, 2004, pp. 112ss.

KREMNITZER, M., A possible case for imposing criminal liability on corporations in international criminal law, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 8 (3), 2010.

KUCHER, A., PETRENKO, A., International criminal responsibility after Katanga: Old challenges, new solutions, in Russian Law Journal, 3, 2015, pp. 144ss.

KUNZ, M., Conceptualizing transnational corporate groups for international criminal law, ed. Nomos, Baden Baden, 2017, pp. 27ss.

KURLANTZICK, J., Taking multinational to Court: How the Alien Tort Act promotes human rights, in World Policy Journal, 21, 2004, pp. 62ss.

KYRIAKAKIS, I., Corporations before international criminal courts: Implications for the international justice project, in Leiden Journal of International Law, 30 (1), 2017, pp. 222ss.

LANGER, M., The diplomacy of universal jurisdiction: The political branches and the transnational prosecution of international crimes, in American Journal of International Law, 105, 2011, pp. 1, 42ss.

LEE, T.H., The safe-conduct theory of the Alien Tort Statute, in 106 Columbia Law Review, 106, 2006, pp. 830, 871.

LEMOS, M.H., The other delegate: Judicially administered statutes and the non delegation doctrine, in South California Law Review, 81, 2008, pp. 405, 429-430.

LIAKOPOULOS, D., Die Hybridität des Verfahrens der Internationalen ad hoc Strafgerichtshöfe und die Bezugnahme auf innerstaatliches Recht in der Rechtsprechun, in International and European Union legal Matters, 2012.

LIAKOPOULOS, D., La sentenza “Pavle Strugar” per i danni alla città di Dubrovnik del Tribunale penale internazionale per la ex Jugoslavia, in Rivista Gazzetta Ambiente, 3, 2005, pp. 154-167.

LIAKOPOULOS, D., Multilatateral corporations and international criminal responsibility. The case of United States, in International and European Union Legal Matters, working paper series, 2018.

LUBAN, D., After the honeymoon: Reflections on the current state of international criminal justice, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 11, 2013, pp. 506ss.

LUSTIG, D., Three paradigms of corporate responsibility in international law: The Kiobel moment, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 12 (3), 2014, pp. 596ss.

MARTIN-ORTEGA, O., Business and human rights in conflict, in Ethics & International Affairs, 22(3), 2008, pp. 273, 280ss.

MBOKANI, J., La cour pénale internationale: Une cour contre les africains ou une cour attentive À la souffrance des victimes Africaines?, in Quebec Journal of International Law, 26 (2), 2013, pp. 48ss.

MERON, T., International law in the age of human rights. General course on public international law, in Recueil des Cours, 301, 2004, pp. 12ss.

MILLIET, P., Droits de l’homme et responsabilité des entreprises, in Covalence Intern Analyst Paper, 30.07.2009.

MIRETSKI, P.P., BACHMANN, S.D., The UN norms on the responsibility of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights: A requiem, in Deakin Law Review, 17 (1), 2012, pp. 12ss.

MOORE MEDELLIN, D.H., The Alien Tort Statute and the domestic status of international law, Vanderbilt Journal of Internatonal Law, 50, 2010, pp. 485ss.

MOULLIER, M.I., Observations sur l’Alien Tort Claims Act et ses implications internationales, in Annuaire Française de Droit International, 49, 2003, pp. 129ss.

MUCHLINSKI, P., Limited liability and multinational enterprises: A case for reform, in Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34, 2010.

MUCHLINSKI, P., The changing face of transnational business governance: Private corporate law liability and accountability of transnational groups in a post financial crisis world, in Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 18 (2), 2011, pp. 667, 685-690.

MUCHLINSKI, P., Multinational enterprises and the law, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, pp. 114ss.

NATARAJAN, M., International crime and justice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010, pp. 52ss.

NERLICH, V., Core crimes and transnational business corporations, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 8, 2010, pp. 896ss.

NOORTMANN, M., REINISCH, A., RYNGAERT, C., Non-State actors in international law, Hart Publishing, Oxford & Portland, Oregon, 2015, pp. 154ss.

ODRIOZOLA GURRUTZAGA, M., Responsabilidad penal por crìmenes internacionales y coautoria medita, in Revista Electrònica de Ciencia Penal y Criminologia, 17, 2015, pp. 7ss.

OLSON, D., Corporate complicity in human rights violations under international criminal law, in International Human Rights Law Journal, 5 (1), 2015.

PARRISCH, A.L., Kiobel, unilateralism, and the retreat from extraterritoriality, in Maryland Journal of International Law, 28, 2013, pp. 208, 213ss,

PARRISH, A.L., Domestic responses to transnational crime: The limits of national law, in Criminal Law Forum, 23, 2012, pp. 275-293.

PARRISH, A.L., State Court international human rights litigation: A concerning trend, in UC Irvine Law Review, 3, 2013, pp. 26ss.

PAUST, J.J., Human rights responsibilities of private corporations, in Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 35, 2002, pp. 801, 802-809.

PEAY, J., Mental incapacity and criminal liability: redrawing the fault lines?, in International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2015, pp. 4ss.

PIETH, M. IVORY, S., Emergence and convergence: Corporate criminal liability principles in overview, in M. PIETH, R. IVORY (eds), Corporate criminal liability: Emergence, convergence and risk, ed. Springer, Berlin, 2011, pp. 12ss.

PINTO, A. EVANS, M., Corporate criminal liability, ed. Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2008, pp. 6ss.

POITEVIN, A., Towards mandatory corporate human rights due diligence at the EU level?, in Institute of Human Rights & Business, 2015.

PORRO, S., Risk and mental element: An analysis of national and international law on core crimes, ed. Nomos, Baden-Baden, 2014.

POSNER, E., PORAT, A., Aggregation and law, in J.M. Olin Program in Law and Economics Working Paper No. 587, 2012.

POSNER, E.A. SUNSTEIN, C.R., Chevronizing foreign relations law, 116 in Yale Law Journal, 2007, pp. 1170, 1198.

PUSCHKE, J., Grund und Grenzen des Gefährdungsstrafrechts am beispiel der Vorbereitungsdelikte, in R. HEFENDEHL, Grenzenlose Vorverlagerung des Strafrechts?, BWV Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin, 2010, pp. 10ss.

RAMSEY, M.D., International law limits on investor liability in human rights litigation, in Harvard International Law Journal, 50, 2009, pp. 280ss.

RAMSEY, M.D., International law limits on investor liability in human rights litigation, in Harvard International Law Journal, 50, 2009, pp. 284-292.

ROBINSON, P.H., GRALL, J.A., Element analysis in defining criminal liability: The model penal code and beyond, in Stanford Law Review, 35, 1983, pp. 685ss.

RULE, T., Using norms to change international law: UN human rights laws sneaking in through the back door, in Chicago Journal of International Law, 5, 2004, pp. 326ss.

SAIF-ALDEN WATTAD, M., Natural persons, legal entities and corporate criminal liability under the Rome statute, in UCLA Journal of International Foreign Affairs, 391, 2016, pp. 394ss.

SALAZAR, C.T., Applying international human rights norms in the United States: Holding multinational corporations accountable in the United States for international human rights violations under the Alien Tort Claims Act, in St. John’s Journal of Legal Commentary, 19, 2004-2005, pp. 111ss.

SCHEFER, D. KAEB, C., The five levels of CSR compliance: The resiliency of corporate liability under the Alien Tort Statute and the case for a counterattack strategy in compliance theory, in Berkeley Jounral of International Law, 29, 2011, pp. 335ss.

SCHEFFER, D., The impact of war crimes Tribunals on corporate liability for atrocity crimes under US Law, in C. WALKER-SAID, J.D. KELLY, Corporate social responsibility? Human rights in the new global economy, Chiago University Press, Chicago, 2015.

SECK, S.L., Collective responsibility and transnational corporate conduct, in T. ISAACS, R.VERNON, Accountability for collective wrongdoing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011, pp. 142ss.

SHAPIRO, D., Kiobel and corporate immunity under the Alien Tort Statute: The struggle for clarity post-sosa, in Harvard International Law Journal, 52, 2011.

SIMPSON, G., Linear law: The history of international criminal law, in C. SCHWÖBEL (ed), Critical approaches to international criminal law: An introduction, ed. Routledge, London & New York, 2014, pp. 162ss.

SINDEN, A., An emerging human right to security from climate change: The case against gas flaring in Nigeria, in W. BURNS, O.H. SOFSKY (a cura di), Adjudicating climate change: Sub-national, national, and supra-national approaches, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-77, 2008, pp. 5ss.

SKINNER, G.L., Beyond Kiobel: Providing access to judicial remedies for violations of international human rights norms by transnational business in a new (Post-Kiobel) World, 46 in Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 46, 2014, pp. 158, 168ss.

SQUATRITO, T., YOUNG, O.R., FOLLESDAL, A., ULSTEIN, G., The performance of international Courts and Tribunals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.

STACK, K.M, The President’s statutory power to administer the law, in Columbia Law Review, 106, 2006, pp. 264ss.

STAHN, C., Liberals vs Romantics: Challenges of an emerging corporate international criminal law, in Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 50, 2018, pp. 94ss.

STEPHENS, B., The curious history of the alien tort statute, in Notre Dame Law Review, 89 (4) 2014, pp. 147ss.

STEPHENS, CB., Comment, Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain: The door is still ajar for human rights litigation in U.S. Courts, in Brooklyn Law Review, 70, 2005, pp. 534ss.

STEPHENS, P.J., Collective criminality and individual responsibility: The constraints of interpetation, in Fordham International Law Journal, 2014, pp. 508ss.

STEWART, D.P., WERTH, I., Kiobei v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.: The Supreme Court and the Alien Tort Statute, in American Journal of International Law, 107 (3) 2013, pp. 602ss.

STEWART, J., A pragmatic critique of corporate criminal theory: Lessons from the extremity, in New Criminal Law Review, 16 (2), 2013, pp. 262ss.

STEWART, J.G., The end of “modes of liability” for international crimes, in Leiden Journal of International Law, 25, 2012, pp. 165-219.

STEWART, J.G., The turn to corporate criminal liability for international crimes: Transcending the Alien Tort Statute, in New York University Journal of International law & Politics, 47 (1), 2014, pp. 122.

STOITCHKOVA, D, Towards corporate liability in international cirminal law, ed. Intersentia, Antwerp, Oxford, 2010.

STRAUSS, P., “Deference” is too confusing: Let’s call them “Chevron space” and “Skidmore weight”, in Columbia Law Review, 112, 2012, pp. 1144ss.

SUNDELL, J., Ill-Gotten gains: The case for international corporate criminal liability, in Minnesota Journal of International Law, 20, 2011, pp. 648, 675-678.

SWART, B., International trends towards establishing some form of punishment for corporations, in International Criminal Justice, 6, 2008, pp. 947, 949ss.

THOMAS, H., The safe-conduct theory of the Alien Tort Statute, in Columbia Law Review, 106, 2006, pp. 832ss.

TURAN, G., Responsibility to prosecute in an age of global governamentality: The International Criminal Court, in Cooperation and Conflict, 50, 2015.

VAN DEN HERIK, K., LETNAR ČERNIČ, J., Regulating corporations under international law: From human rights to international criminal law and back again, 8 Journal of International Criminal Justice, 8, 2010, pp. 725-743.

VAN DEN HERIK, L., Corporations as future subjects of the International Criminal Court: An exploration of the counter arguments and consequences, in C. STAHN, L. VAN DEN HERIK, Future perspectives on international criminal justice, T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, 2010, pp. 352ss.

VAN DEN HERIK, L., DAM JONG, D.D., Revitalizing the antique war crime of pillage: The potential and pitfalls of using international criminal law to address illegal resource exploitation during armed conflict, in Criminal Law Forum, 15, 2011, pp. 238ss.

VÁZQUEZ, C., Alien Tort Claims and the status of customary international law, in American Journal of International Law, 106, 2012, pp. 531, 642-543.

VÁZQUEZ, C.M., Customary international law as U.S. law: A critique of the revisionist and intermediate positions and a defense of the modern position, in Notre Dame Law Review, 86, 2011, pp. 1495, 1515-1516, 1538-1554.

VIJ, V., Individual criminal responsibility under aiding and abetting after the specific direction requirement in the Taylor and Perišć cases, in Die Friedens-Warte, 2013, pp. 160ss.

VON ERNSTORFF, J. JACOB, M., STONE, J.D., The Alien Tort Statute before the US Supreme Court in the Kiobel case: Does international law prohibit US courts to exercise extraterritorial civil jurisdiction over human rights abuses committed outside of the US?, in Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 72, 2012, pp. 580ss.

WARD, H., Securing transnational corporate accountability through National Courts: Implications and policy options, in Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 24, 2000-2001, pp. 451ss.

WAUGH, C., Charles Taylor and Liberia: Ambition and atrocity in Africa’s lone star State, ed. Zed Books, New York, 2011.

WEEKS, J., Strongmen and straw men: Authoritarian regimes and the initiation of international conflict, in American Political Science Review, 106 (2), 2012, pp. 329ss.

WEISSBRODT, D., KRUGER, M., Norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights, in American Journal of International Law, 97, 2003, pp. 901, 902-915.

WELLS, C., Corporate criminal liability: Exploring some models in United Kingdom, the Law Commission, criminal liability in regulatory contexts, Consultation Paper N. 195, 2010, pp. 198ss.

WHYTOC, C.A., EARL III CHILDRESS, D., RAMSEY, M.D., After Kiobel-International human rights litigation in State Courts and under State law, in UC Irvine Law Review, 3 (1), 2013, pp. 5ss.

WILMSHURTS E., (a cura di), International law and the classification of conflicts, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012.

WRIGHT, J., Retribution but no recompense: A critique of the torturer’s immunity from civil suit, in Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 30, 2010, pp. 143, 160-162.

WUERTH, I.B.The Alien Tort Statute and federal common law: A new approach, 85 in Notre Dame Law Review, 85, 2010, pp. 1932.

YOUNG, E.A., Sosa and the retail incorporation of international law, in Harvard Law Review, 28, 2007.

ZERK, J., Multinationals and corporate social responsibility, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006, pag. 74.

Publicado
2019-03-04
Como Citar
LIAKOPOULOS, D. CRIMINAL LIABILITY AND COMPULSORY IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE. Revista de Direito da Faculdade Guanambi, v. 5, n. 02, p. 13-91, 4 mar. 2019.
Seção
Artigos